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The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) - Discussion

Индекс материала
The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI)
The theoretical foundation of the Bar-On model
Description of the instrument used to develop the Bar-On model (the EQ-i)
The rigorous development of the EQ-i helped create a robust model of ESI
The construct validity of the EQ-i confirms that the Bar-On model is describing ESI
The Bar-On model of ESI predicts various aspects of human performance
The Bar-On model is teachable and learnable
Discussion
Все страницы

Discussion

The findings presented in this article have shown that emotional-social intelligence, as conceptualized by the Bar-On model, is a multi-factorial array of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that influence one's ability to recognize, understand and manage emotions, to relate with others, to adapt to change and solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature, and to efficiently cope with daily demands, challenges and pressures. It has also been shown that the development of this model has been rigorous, and that the outcome of this process has produced a valid concept and measure of ESI. Not only is this model consistent and stable over time and across cultures, but it is also capable of describing the construct it was designed to describe (emotional-social intelligence). The importance and usefulness of Bar-On model has also been demonstrated by examining its ability to predict various aspects of human behavior and performance. Furthermore, showing that the concept is both teachable and learnable and that the ESI factors involved can be enhanced underscores the importance and usefulness of this model.

The studies presented need to be replicated in more diverse settings. It is important to continue to study this model in order to learn how best to apply it at home, school and work. Future studies should use a wide variety of methods to examine the relationship between the Bar-On model and an even wider variety of human performance. In light of the fact that all of the studies presented were cross-sectional moreover, future research should also attempt to longitudinally examine this model and its ability to describe ESI and predict human performance over time; and it was explained that such a study is presently underway. It is particularly important to continue to examine ESI and its predictive validity across cultures in an effort to better evaluate its applicability in parenting, education, work and healthcare worldwide.

Hopefully, this model and the findings it has generated will more routinely make their way into the home, school and workplace. Parents and educators can benefit from this by raising and educating children to be more emotionally and socially intelligent, effective and productive from an early age onward. Human resources personnel in organizations could also make more widespread use of this model and measure in hiring, training and succession planning in order to increase individual effectiveness and organizational productivity. Furthermore, healthcare practitioners could benefit from focusing on the above-mentioned ESI components of the Bar-On model in diagnostic, remedial and preventive work. Such an approach could be used in mapping out those ESI areas that need to be enhanced in order to increase individual effectiveness, self-actualization and general well-being.

One particular ESI model, no matter how valid, robust and viable it might be, describes only a limited view of the individual's capacity for emotionally and socially intelligent behavior. In order to provide a more complete and comprehensive description of the capacity for this type of behavior, we should consider creating an expanded model that incorporates the best conceptual and psychometric aspects of existing ESI models. As such, a future challenge in this field is to explore how best to create a multi­dimensional model that captures both the potential (or ability) for emotionally and socially intelligent behavior as well as a self-report and multi-rater assessment of this type of behavior. Our ability to more fully describe ESI will be incomplete until we succeed in creating such a multi-dimensional and multi-modal approach. By applying an expanded model of ESI, we will eventually be more effective in mapping out this construct, evaluating its importance and understanding how best to apply it. Encouraging such an approach is also the best way to discourage the proliferation of ungrounded theorizing that abets misconceptions and false claims of what emotional-social intelligence is and is not and what it can and cannot predict.

Notes

1 For a number of years, I have referred to this construct as «emotional and social intelligence» which I have recently abbreviated to «emotional-social intelligence».

2 It was Charles Darwin who published the first known work in the wider area of emotional-social intelligence as early as 1872 (on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation).

3 This work began in the early 1980s as part of my doctoral research (1988).

4 I have also developed a 60-item youth version of the EQ-i (the EQ-i:YV), which is applicable from 8 to 18 years of age and takes approximately 15 minutes to complete (Bar-On & Parker, 2000).

5 Approximately  2%   of the   sample  did  not  indicate  their ethnicity.

6 The translation process has created not only over 30 different translations but also  more than one version of the  same language for a number of languages. For example, there are two versions  of French  (European  and North American), Spanish (European and Central American) and Portuguese (European and South American). The purpose of this ongoing process of translation is to facilitate the use of the Bar-On model and measure by practitioners and researchers. For more details,   the  reader  is  referred  to   the  publisher's  Foreign Language Translation Department at Multi-Health Systems in Canada (www.mhs.com).

7 The Spanish translation was carried out by Prof. Daniel Gomez Dupertuis and his colleagues at Universidad Nacional de La Plata in Buenos Aires. This highly methodical and professional approach became a benchmark for future translations and was replicated by other translators.

8 This    study   is   being   conducted   by   Human   Resources Development Canada and is presently  in  its   10"  year.  It represents  the  first  longitudinal  study  of emotional-social intelligence and is expected to shed a great deal of light on how this construct develops, what affects it and what is affected by it from birth to early adulthood. The individuals and theirparents have been providing a wide array of biomedical, developmental, personality, cognitive, educational, social and behavioral information. Additionally, the subjects have been tested with the youth version of the EQ-i every two years, and they will continue to be tested with the adult version of the EQ-i from 18 years of age onward.

9 The MEIS  (Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Test) is an earlier   version   of   the   MSCEIT   (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), which was designed to measure the authors' 4-branch theory of emotional intelligence.

10 While the 4-metafactor structure of the MSCEIT is evidently confirmed by factor analysis (Brackett & Salovey, 2006), an examination of the subfactor structure of the 8 El tasks included within the measure's four branches has not been found in the literature which could mean that it has not been confirmed. The 18-factor structure of the ECI does not appear to be empirically justified based on the latest findings (Boyatzis & Sala, 2004); a 9-factor structure has emerged in place of the measure's present structure    (Boyatzis    et    al.,    2001)    as    well    as    earlier conceptualizations of the Goleman model (Goleman, 1998).

11Brackett and Salovey reported split-half reliability correlations of .93 and .91 for the MSCEIT's total score and a retest reliability of .86 after a relatively short period of three weeks (2006).

12 Fairly recent findings suggest that the right somatosensory and insular cortices as well as the right amygdala are also involved, forming a neural circuitry with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (Bar-On et al., 2003; Bechara & Bar-On, in press).

13 Unfortunately, very few published studies have examined the degree of correlation between the MSCEIT and other measures of ESI; and most of the existing publications present primarily divergent   evidence   for  the   MSCEIT's   construct  validity. However, it is insufficient to assess the construct validity of a measure by examining only its divergent construct validity

(i.e., what it is not measuring); one must logically present convergent construct validity as well (i.e., what it is measuring). In order to establish that a particular measure of a psychological construct is psychometrically sound, it is axiomatic in test construction to examine and compare both divergent as well as convergent evidence (Anastasi, 1988; Campbell & Fiske, 1959).

14 This argument has been made in psychology more than a quarter of century ago (Bern & Allen, 1974); and more than half a century ago, David Wechsler specifically argued that part of this «mix» impacts intelligent behavior (Wechsler, 1940, 1943).

15 There is a growing body of medical literature which suggests that   self-perceived   health   is   significantly   correlated   with clinically assessed health and is a good predictor of one's overall physical condition (Shadbolt et al., 2002).

16 The MSCEIT has demonstrated correlations with measures of anxiety and depression ranging from .25 to .33 (Brackett & Salovey, 2006). However, it is not clear if actual clinical samples have been studied with this instrument.

17 Brackett, Warner and Bosco (2005) have found correlations in the .28 to .45 range between the MSCEIT and the «quality of interpersonal relationships».

18 Brackett and Salovey describe correlations between the MSCEIT and scholastic performance in the .20 to .25 range (2006).

19 The correlation between the MSCEIT and various aspects of occupational   performance   ranges   between   .22   and   .46 (Brackett & Salovey, 2006).

20 Cognitive    intelligence    was    assessed    with    the    Raven Progressive Matrix in the Israeli sample and with the General Adult Mental Ability Scale in the Dutch sample.

21 The highest correlations obtained between the MSCEIT and various scales of subjective well-being range from .27 to .36 based on study conducted by Brackett and Mayer (2003).

Appendix

The EQ-i scales and what they assess

 

EQ-i SCALES

The El competencies and skills assessed by each scale

Intrapersonal Self-eegard Emotional self-awareness Assertive ness Independence Self-actualization

Self-awareness and self-expression: To accurately perceive, understand and accept oneself To be aware of and understand one's emotions To effectively and constructively express one's emotions and oneself To be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on. others To strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one's potential

Interpersonal Empathy Social responsibility Interpersonal relationship

Social awareness and interpersonal relationship: To be aware of and understand how others feel To identify with one's social group and cooperate with others To establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate well with others

Stress management Stress tolerance Impulse control

Emotional management and regulation: To effectively and constructively manage emotions To effectively and constructively control emotions

Adaptability Reality-testing Flexibility Problem-solving

Change management: To objectively validate one's feelings and thinking with external reality To adapt and adjust one's feelings and thinking to new situations To effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature

General mood Optimism Happiness

Self-motivation: To be positive and look at the brighter side of life To feel content with oneself others and life in. general

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