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The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) - The theoretical foundation of the Bar-On model

Индекс материала
The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI)
The theoretical foundation of the Bar-On model
Description of the instrument used to develop the Bar-On model (the EQ-i)
The rigorous development of the EQ-i helped create a robust model of ESI
The construct validity of the EQ-i confirms that the Bar-On model is describing ESI
The Bar-On model of ESI predicts various aspects of human performance
The Bar-On model is teachable and learnable
Discussion
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The theoretical foundation of the Bar-On model 

Darwin's early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation (1872/1965) has influenced

the ongoing development of the Bar-On model, which both stresses the importance of emotional expression and views the outcome of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior in Darwinian terms of effective adaptation. Additional influence on my thinking can be traced to Thorndike's description of social intelligence and its importance for human performance (1920) as well as Wechsler's observations related to the impact of non-cognitive and conative factors on what he referred to as «intelligent behavior» (1940, 1943). Sifneos' description of alexithymia (1967) on the pathological end of the ESI continuum and Appelbaum's conceptualization of psychological mindedness (1973) on the eupsychic end of this continuum have also had an impact on the ongoing development of the Bar-On model.

From Darwin to the present, most descriptions, definitions and conceptualizations of emotional-social intelligence have included one or more of the following key components: (a) the ability to recognize, understand and express emotions and feelings; (b) the ability to understand how others feel and relate with them; (c) the ability to manage and control emotions; (d) the ability to manage change, adapt and solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature; and (e) the ability to generate positive affect and be self-motivated.

The Bar-On model provides the theoretical basis for the EQ-i, which was originally developed to assess various aspects of this construct as well as to examine its conceptualization. According to this model, emotional-social intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands. The emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators referred in this conceptualization include the five key components described above; and each of these components comprises a number of closely related competencies, skills and facilitators which are described in the Appendix. Consistent with this model, to be emotionally and socially intelligent is to effectively understand and express oneself, to understand and relate well with others, and to successfully cope with daily demands, challenges and pressures. This is based, first and foremost, on one's intrapersonal ability to be aware of oneself, to understand one's strengths and weaknesses, and to express one's feelings and thoughts non-destructively. On the interpersonal level, being emotionally and socially intelligent encompasses the ability to be aware of others' emotions, feelings and needs, and to establish and maintain cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationships. Ultimately, being emotionally and socially intelligent means to effectively manage personal, social and environmental change by realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation, solving problems and making decisions. To do this, we need to manage emotions so that they work for us and not against us, and we need to be sufficiently optimistic, positive and self-motivated.